When Giant Scorpions Swarmed the Seas

  • Published on: 02 April 2019
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    Sea scorpions thrived for 200 million years, coming in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Over time, they developed a number of adaptations--from crushing claws to flattened tails for swimming. And some of them adapted by getting so big that they still hold the record as the largest arthropods of all time.

    Thank you to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations:
    Franz Anthony: https://252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony
    Ceri Thomas: http://alphynix.tumblr.com/
    Lucas Lima: https://252mya.com/gallery/lucas-lima
    Julio Lacerda: https://252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda
    Nobu Tamura: https://spinops.blogspot.com/


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    References:
    Braddy, Simon J., Richard J. Aldridge, Sarah E. Gabbott, and Johannes N. Theron. "Lamellate book-gills in a late Ordovician eurypterid from the Soom Shale, South Africa: support for a eurypterid-scorpion clade." Lethaia 32, no. 1 (1999): 72-74.
    Braddy, Simon J., Markus Poschmann, and O. Erik Tetlie. "Giant claw reveals the largest ever arthropod." Biology Letters 4, no. 1 (2007): 106-109. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsbl.2007.0491
    Brezinski, David K., and Albert D. Kollar. "Reevaluation of the Age and Provenance of the Giant Palmichnium kosinskiorum Eurypterid Trackway, from Elk County, Pennsylvania." Annals of Carnegie Museum 84, no. 1 (2016): 39-45.
    Briggs, Derek EG, and WD Ian Rolfe. "A giant arthropod trackway from the Lower Mississippian of Pennsylvania." Journal of Paleontology (1983): 377-390. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1304661.pdf?seq=1
    Elliott, David K., and Michael A. Petriello. "New poraspids (Agnatha, Heterostraci) from the Early Devonian of the western United States." Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31, no. 3 (2011): 518-530.
    Lamsdell, James C., and Simon J. Braddy. "Cope's Rule and Romer's theory: patterns of diversity and gigantism in eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates." Biology Letters (2009): doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0700
    Lamsdell, James C., Simon J. Braddy, and O. Erik Tetlie. "Redescription of Drepanopterus abonensis (Chelicerata: Eurypterida: Stylonurina) from the Late Devonian of Portishead, UK." Palaeontology 52, no. 5 (2009): 1113-1139.
    Legg, David A. "Sanctacaris uncata: the oldest chelicerate (Arthropoda). "Naturwissenschaften 101, no. 12 (2014): 1065-1073.
    Manning, P. L. and Dunlop, J. A. “The respiratory organs of eurypterids.” Palaeontology, 38, no. 2 (1995): 287–297.
    McCoy, Victoria E., James C. Lamsdell, Markus Poschmann, Ross P. Anderson, and Derek EG Briggs. "All the better to see you with: eyes and claws reveal the evolution of divergent ecological roles in giant pterygotid eurypterids." Biology letters 11, no. 8 (2015): 20150564.
    Poschmann, Markus, Brigitte Schoenemann, and Victoria E. McCoy. "Telltale eyes: the lateral visual systems of Rhenish Lower Devonian eurypterids (Arthropoda, Chelicerata) and their palaeobiological implications." Palaeontology 59, no. 2 (2016): 295-304.
    Selden, P. A., and John David Lawson. "Eurypterid respiration." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 309, no. 1138 (1985): https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rstb.1985.0081
    Tetlie, O. Erik. "Distribution and dispersal history of Eurypterida (Chelicerata)." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252, no. 3-4 (2007): 557-574. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6434/bc6cdbfd7613c5dc725333a5b003975c6c50.pdf
    Vrazo, Matthew B., and Simon J. Braddy. "Testing the ‘mass-moult-mate’hypothesis of eurypterid palaeoecology." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 311, no. 1-2 (2011): 63-73.
    Whyte, Martin A. "Palaeoecology: a gigantic fossil arthropod trackway." Nature 438, no. 7068 (2005): 576.
  • Runtime : 11:41
  • dinosaurs dinos paleo paleontology scishow eons pbs pbs digital studios hank green john green complexly fossils natural history jawless fish sea scorpions Jaekelopterus Silurian Devonian placoderms arthropods eurypterids scorpions Stylonuria Chelicerata arachnids telsons claws Eurytperina Hibbertopterus kiemenplatten The Great Dying

COMMENTS: 40

  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons   1 years ago

    Hi everyone! Thanks for the heads up about the flash frames in the video. The issue appears to have resolved on its own? I hope you were still able enjoy this video about these enormous and terrifying arthropods. -Seth

  • Dondragmer
    Dondragmer   5 days ago

    It's about time I saw a presentation that clearly explained the large distinction between sea scorpions and the modern land scorpions. I had not even found this in books. Thank you.

  • Mio Prytzo
    Mio Prytzo   2 weeks ago

    Some of this script is very similar to Trey The Explainer's video on sea scorpions from 2016, one line is word for word the same ("we probably have placoderms to thank for the nightmare fuel that followed" 5:40).

  • Domi Nus
    Domi Nus   2 weeks ago

    lol Kiemenplatten, sprich das richtig aus.

  • gumpy4699
    gumpy4699   4 weeks ago

    ill never forget that eurypterus remipes is the official fossil of new york state. thanks mr trombley!

  • rupali pandre
    rupali pandre   4 weeks ago

    THERE LIVED A SPECIES WHICH MEASURE FROM 3 METRES , BIGGER THAN THE JAEKOLOPTERUS !!!!!!!

  • Dan Ryan
    Dan Ryan   4 weeks ago

    Why did you swarm the seas?I can't help it, I'm a giant scorpion.

  • Gerson Cuevas
    Gerson Cuevas   1 months ago

    3:35Is it just me or that's the cutest scorpion ever?

  • Alex Rose
    Alex Rose   1 months ago

    Other than triggering my arachnophobia some, the best thing I got out of this video is that if I ever get a Roomba, I’ll name it Hibbs. In honor of Hibbertopterus of course. <3

  • ROCKLOVING METALHEAD
    ROCKLOVING METALHEAD   1 months ago

    I'm sorry but "The great dying" just sounds dumb. I still prefere "The Permian mass extinction" it tells you when this occured and what it was. The great dying coukd have happened at any period during Earths history.

  • TheRubsi
    TheRubsi   1 months ago

    Wait, "Kiemenplatten"?That's literally German and means gill plates

  • Zenna
    Zenna   1 months ago

    So giant lobsters

  • Liam Leonard
    Liam Leonard   1 months ago

    Why did they evolve to become so tiny, they went from biggest arthropod recorded to the size of your pinky in just 9 million years?

  • Wall Coconut
    Wall Coconut   1 months ago

    I always wanted a fossil of a eurypterid...they fascinate me. My one brother and I used to fossil hunt and we were going to go looking for some, but we never got around to it. Amazing creatures. I miss looking for fossils.

  • Rita- Ray
    Rita- Ray   1 months ago

    How do I work for you guys? You guys are Awsome !

  • Maxeon 09
    Maxeon 09   2 months ago

    Kiemenplatten is a german word and means gill plates.

  • Cat Gaming
    Cat Gaming   2 months ago

    Australia: WILD200 million years ago...Earth: WILD

  • David Jones
    David Jones   2 months ago

    Wish I could time travel just to fish for one of those. Forget trout, that would be a satisfying haul. DAMN.

  • Tango Zulu
    Tango Zulu   2 months ago

    Imagine if these things were still around and we would eat them like we eat lobsters.

  • boboesq 2
    boboesq 2   2 months ago

    when did the first spiders appear on earth?

  • Vin Laster
    Vin Laster   2 months ago

    Great videos but never let youself get sponsored by Amazon .jeff besos is bringing his workers back to the 19 century in Terms of rights and treatment. Dont Support this . I am sure you guys are better.

  • Liz P
    Liz P   2 months ago

    Ok I need a full documentary on life in the sea since the beginning of the earth when seas were formed

  • D G
    D G   2 months ago

    If there's one thing that Eons has taught me it's that I'm glad I didn't live millions of years ago.

  • Todesnuss
    Todesnuss   2 months ago

    Kiemenplatten just means 'gill-plates'